How to propagate a primrose
One of the first flowers that delights gardeners with its amazingly beautiful flowering in the flowerbed is primrose. The plant is so unpretentious, easy to cultivate and care that it won universal love and became the most popular spring primrose. To create a bright and colorful flower garden, experts practice home breeding culture. What methods of primrose dilution exist, and how to properly care for it after the procedure - find out from the article.
Description of Primrose
Primrose or primrose is a garden herbaceous culture of the genus Primrose, whose natural growth zone is considered to be the northern regions of Africa, central parts of Asia, Europe and the Middle East.
The plant is small and reaches a height of not more than 35 cm. It is characterized by intensive growth rates, has a branched and well-developed rhizome, consisting of surface and fibrous roots. The basal rosette is presented as a group of dissected or simple sheets of a lanceolate shape with a wrinkled surface covered with small fibers. Some varieties of primrose have heart-shaped leaf plates.
During flowering, long, thin petioles are formed on the plant, on which the original shape of the flower appears, resembling a gramophone. The flower consists of 5 petals, each of which at the top is divided into 3 blades. It can be either a single type or as part of inflorescences, which differ in the most diverse form - spherical, umbrella-shaped, pyramidal, whorled, racemose, etc. The color scheme of the plant is striking in its richness and versatility. There are primrose monophonic color, two-tone, with colorful edging.
Did you know? The people primrose is often called the "keys", because its flowers, collected in inflorescences, outwardly resemble a bunch of keys.
After flowering, the culture forms a fruit - an achene of a spherical or cylindrical appearance, in which the seeds required for further propagation ripen.
Propagation of primrose is not as difficult as many inexperienced gardeners think. The plant grows rapidly, adapts well after planting, with proper care and comfortable climatic conditions, it takes root quickly. Gardeners practice several effective and simple methods of cultivation: seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush. The features of each of the methods are described below.
The seed method of primrose cultivation is not the simplest, but allows you to get new varieties of plants. As a rule, it is used by experienced gardeners or genetic scientists involved in breeding. It must be remembered that the germination rate of the seed material after its collection is significantly reduced, during the winter season at room conditions, the germination rate drops to 60–80%. That is why it is recommended that seeds be sown in the soil immediately after harvesting.
Sowing of seed material should be carried out in February, but before that it is necessary to stratify them - put the seeds in one layer in a damp cloth and send them to the refrigerator for 3-4 weeks
For sowing seed material, you should choose a light, nutritious substrate, consisting of turf, leaf soil and river sand mixed in a ratio of 2: 2: 1.
Sowing technology is based on the following steps:
- pour soil into the prepared container;
- distribute the seeds on the surface, not deepening into the soil, but slightly pressing. Sow no more than 5 seeds per 1 cm²;
- place the container in a plastic bag and send it to a cold place, for example, a freezer, where temperature indicators are -10 ° С;
- withstand crops in the cold for 3-4 weeks.
Important! Not all types of primrose need stratification of seed material. For example, a fine-toothed and ordinary culture does not need such a procedure.
After the seed is frozen, the container covered with a film must be transferred to the window sill and a small shade should be arranged. Care must be taken to ensure that the soil is always moderately moist. In order for the seeds to germinate faster, it is necessary to maintain the temperature regime at + 16 ... + 18 ° C.
The first shoots can not be observed soon. As soon as seedlings appear, the film should be removed a little. You can completely remove the polyethylene after 1-1.5 weeks after the formation of seedlings. When 2-3 full leaves are formed on the seedlings, they can be planted in separate peas. The main care for the growing primrose is regular watering, the frequency of which is determined by the state of the topsoil - it should always be slightly moist.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
Breeding primrose by dividing the bush allows not only to obtain new copies, but also to rejuvenate, improve old plants. Experts do not recommend growing the culture for more than 3-4 years in one place, since it grows rapidly, the root system begins to gradually age and die. Planting primrose in this way is preferable in early spring or late summer. It is sometimes possible to breed plants immediately after flowering.
The bush, which is planned to be divided, needs to be abundantly watered, and after a few hours, carefully dig out together with a large lump of earth. Gently, the root system is recommended to be freed from the soil so that the root roots and the neck of the root are clearly visible. Then you need to use a sharp disinfected knife to divide the bush, making sure that each part receives 2-3 "live" buds. Places of all sections are recommended to be processed with crushed coal or ash.
Video: Primrose bush division
Landing of cut pieces should be done immediately so that they do not dry out. Low-growing varieties of primrose are planted in the soil at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, vigorous - about 25 cm. After planting for 10 days, the dividers are watered daily, maintaining a sufficient level of humidity, but not very flooded, since the root system can rot . If plant transplantation was carried out in autumn, then the bushes should be covered for the winter so as not to freeze.
Did you know? There are many legends and beliefs associated with primrose. So, in Germany, there was a belief that if an unmarried girl finds a flower for Easter, then she will be married in the same year.
For many varieties of primrose, a third method of breeding is also available - cuttings by leaf. A similar method is convenient to use if:
- the roots of the plant are too weak and there is no way to divide the roots;
- if the bush has only one outlet.
Sheet cuttings are not particularly difficult if all activities are carried out according to the following instructions:
- from the main bush, more precisely from the neck of the root, carefully separate with a sharp knife the leaf along with the petiole and the growth point;
- cut off the upper half of the sheet plate;
- pour peat into prepared containers;
- plant the stalk in a substrate, top off the soil with a small layer of river fine sand;
- Cover the container with plastic wrap or glass to create a greenhouse effect;
- place the container with cuttings in a warm and well-lit place, with a temperature of + 16 ... + 18 ° С.
Until the cuttings take root, regularly remove cover and irrigate seedlings.. It will take at least 3-4 months for the plant to take root. After the formation of several full leaves on them, the cuttings can be transplanted to a permanent place. Flowering primrose will come in about 6 months.
Immediately after the primrose breeding procedure, it is necessary to organize high-quality, regular care and create favorable conditions for full development. It is not difficult to take care of the plant, the main thing is to perform basic agricultural practices - watering, top dressing, pruning, treatment from pests and ailments.
Video: Garden primrose - planting and care in the open ground
The main growth conditions for garden primrose are moderately moist, light and nutritious soil. The flower is extremely negative to clay soils, responds well to loam, sandy loam or chernozem.
When planting bushes on hard clay lands it is recommended to “lighten” them by making:
- sand - per 1 m² bucket;
- vermiculite, sphagnum and organic compost - per 1 m² 20 kg of the mixture.
Also when planting a crop keep in mind that she prefers areas that are lit by the sun only in the morning and in the evening, and is also reliably protected from drafts and cold winds. Rocky slides in the western or northern part of the garden are perfect.
Watering a plant is one of the main aspects of caring for it. It is recommended to constantly maintain moderate soil moisture, especially in spring, and at the same time, to prevent moisture stagnation, which can provoke decay of the root system. Under normal weather conditions, it is enough to water the bushes once a week. During a drought, the amount of moisture is advised to increase to 2-3 times a week. At 1 m² of landings, at least 3 liters of water should be used.
Most of the primroses have an average winter hardiness and can withstand a drop in temperature to -6 ° C.. Many hybrid varieties negatively relate even to zero temperature, so they should be dug for the winter, put in containers and stored indoors until spring.
It is enough to cover winter-hardy varieties of culture for the winter with spruce branches and then sprinkle with a thick layer of snow.
In early spring, when the snow has completely melted, it is recommended to crop the leaves of the crop.. Experts do not advise holding events in the fall, since green mass serves as an excellent nutrition for the root system, and dried leaves play the role of additional protection against frost.
In addition, so that the dried buds do not take away the strength of the plant, they should be trimmed in a timely manner throughout the growing season.
As noted above, when growing primrose it is very important to ensure that the soil is always moderately moist. When cultivating a flower at home, you need to regularly spray the crown. Also, a container with a plant can be placed in a pan with water.
When a crop grows on open ground, it is recommended to organize shading on sunny days. Surface spraying of leaves and stem is also permitted.
The plant of the described variety responds well to the application of organic fertilizers, in particular, humus, peat, compost. If the culture is perennial, then it is recommended to feed it throughout the growing season, until the fall. It is advisable to use mineral complex preparations based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as fertilizers. It is necessary to make at least three recharge: in early spring, a few weeks after the first and second half of summer.
Important! It must be remembered that if the soil contains an increased percentage of nitrogen, then primrose may not bloom for the next season, but there will be beautiful thick foliage.
Diseases and pests
Like other garden flowers, under adverse climatic conditions or poor care, primrose can be adversely affected by various fungal ailments and parasites. Of the first, most often the culture is affected:
- powdery mildew - manifests itself in the form of spots of brown color with a white coating formed on sheet plates;
- gray rot - easy to recognize by the presence on the leaves and shoots of yellow spots with a brown border;
- rust - on the outer surface of the leaves red-brown spots form, which later turn into tubercles;
- anthracnose - infected parts are covered with almost black coating and small brown spots with a purple border;
- chlorosis - primrose leaves become colorless, buds are deformed, and flowers inhibit their growth.
If the culture is infected, all affected parts should be trimmed and destroyed.. Further, the bushes must be sprayed with fungicidal preparations, for example, “Topaz”. Also, for prevention, you can treat planting with a solution of Bordeaux fluid.
Of the pests, most often the flower becomes a "victim":
- spider mite;
Effectively fighting insects allows modern insecticidal preparations - Actellik, Ragor, Aktara. The leaves of the plant and shoots should be thoroughly washed with soapy water. More expertly advised to collect with your hands and burn outside the site.Primrose is a delicate, beautiful and bright flower that attracts gardeners not only for its long lush flowering, but also for its ease of care and cultivation. The flower is not capricious, easily propagates, quickly adapts to a new place, however, it is quite demanding on soil moisture, which is extremely important to consider when growing it.