Description of sambac jasmine
Jasmine Sambac is a decorative shrub vine with fragrant white flowers. In tropical climates, it is used to decorate gardens, and in cooler areas - for landscaping. All 200 varieties of this tropical plant are equally fragrant and find their application in the preparation of fragrant flower tea and in the manufacture of perfumes. Read more about how to grow this beautiful plant, read the material.
Sambac jasmine botanical description
The culture received a botanical description in 1753 thanks to Karl Linnaeus. The plant was assigned to the genus jasmine, which includes 198 more species. Sambac (Jasminum Sambac) is a small bush or vine with a height of 0.5 to 3 m. It is the national flower of the Philippines. There he is called sampaguita (sampaguita). The plant also grows in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and in many places in South and Southeast Asia: in Madagascar, Cambodia, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico.
Jasmine is perfect for tropical climates and does not tolerate frost., therefore, culture was introduced to Europe only in the XVIII century, where it became known as Sambac, or Arabic jasmine. This medieval Arabic term denoted oil obtained from any kind of jasmine. To this end, it is grown now. In indoor floriculture, it is possible to use Sambaka leaves as a remedy for many diseases, and flowers for the preparation of decoctions and drinks. The flowers themselves are edible and can be used to decorate cakes and pastries..
In indoor culture, jasmine can be used for landscaping large rooms: fitness centers, clinics, hotels, schools and other institutions. In the summer, the plant can be taken to the terraces of cafes and other places of recreation.
Did you know? In China, jasmine is used as a symbol of female weakness and beauty. It also symbolizes deep affection, happiness and elegance.
- type: evergreen vine or shrub;
- height: 0.5–3 m;
- grown in floriculture: cuttings;
- leaves: simple, ternary, unpaired, leathery, ovate, 4–12.5 cm long and 2–7.5 cm wide;
- flowering: all year round or during the warm season, depending on the variety;
- flowers: 1-3 cm in diameter with 5–9 petals;
- features: flowers appear in groups of 3-12 pieces at the ends of the shoots, open at night at 6 pm and close in the morning at 12 o’clock, have a strong aroma;
- fruit: violet-black berry with a diameter of up to 1 cm.
Not every flower grows a berry. This is the top ovary of the flower group. Since Jasmine Sambac is represented by many varieties, its flowers can be white, yellow, pinkish, but the berries are only black-purple. They are inedible, but not toxic.
In China, Sambaka blooms from May to August and fruiting from July to September. In Hawaii, this species shows a peak of flowering from April to August, and in the remaining months very few flowers form on the bushes, therefore the period of the appearance of flowers and fruiting depends on the characteristics of a particular climatic region and weather conditions.
Did you know? In Ayurvedic medicine, jasmine is used to calm the nerves, relieve the effects of stress, help with PMS and headache. It is proved that this plant has antispasmodic properties.
Varieties of Jasmine Sambac
Varieties of jasmine Sambac differ among themselves in the form of leaves and the characteristics of the floral corolla. It can be terry or semi-double. And the flower itself with a diameter of 1 to 3 cm, with a single row of petals or several.All varieties are fast-growing, so the conditions for their cultivation will be the same.
The grade Arabian knights (Arabian knights) is an evergreen bush intended for use both outdoors and indoors. It blooms mainly in the warm season from March to October. It looks like an Orleans virgin aroma, has single flowers with a double row of petals.
Grand Duke of Tuscany
The uniqueness of the Grand Duke of Tuscany variety is that its flowers have a double row of petalswhy they become like miniature roses. But they are also less fragrant than other varieties. On sale, the Grand Duke of Tuscany is also known under other names: Jasmine Rose (Rose jasmine) and Bat Mogro (Butt Mograw).
Grand Duke (Grand Duke) - the owner of the largest flowers. They are 3 times more than that of the Orleans maiden and more like others like roses with the number of petals. At the same time, it is a rather compact bush that forms 2 vines, and therefore it is ideal for growing on a trellis or as a decoration for a garden gazebo.
Orleans Maid (Maid Of Orleans) - owner of flower buds with 5 rounded and short petals. It is believed that jasmine flowers not only aromatize the air, but also purify it and have a calming effect. To do this, sit next to the flower and inhale its delightful aroma for 5-7 minutes.
A unique feature of the flowers of the Orleans virgin is that they are one-day. In one day, the flower blooms, and the next day it fades. But instead, the following arises. This variety is characterized by a large number of shoots and is intended for indoor cultivation.
- optimal room temperature: + 15 ° C;
- Lighting: full sun.
The beauty of India
Belle Of India is a plant that is great for landscaping walls and trellises.. The height of an adult sambac can reach 3 m, and a width of 1 m. It is a dense, single-barrel perennial with individual growth characteristics. If you carefully trim it, you get a balanced bush. A feature of the culture is that pruning stimulates flowering and allows you to get as many star-shaped white flowers on the branches. Flowering will continue from mid spring to mid autumn. The flowers themselves are great for cutting.
The plant needs periodic maintenance, and after flowering, dry flower stalks are pruned. The variety will also be a good choice for planting in outdoor pots or containers.. When potted, he will need frequent watering - up to 3 times a week.
Did you know? At home, in India, Belle bush serves as a shelter and food source for hummingbirds.
Sort Mysore Mallig (Mysore Malli) resembles the Beauty of Indiabut its petals are shorter and the aroma is much more distinct. It is also often grown in indoor floriculture.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Sambac Jasmine
The benefits of growing jasmine at home are many. You get a plant with long flowering, sweet, heady aroma and medicinal properties. Its flowers are recommended to be picked early in the morning.. At this time, they exude maximum odor.
The advantage of the plant is that it will be lush and green year-round. At the same time, jasmine does not require special care. And you will spend much more time enjoying your plants than caring for them. Thus, the Missouri Botanical Garden classifies this particular species as “not requiring special care”, not only because of its simplicity, but also because the plant is little susceptible to disease and not affected by pests.
But advantages can be considered as disadvantages. Not all people like strong smells. Also, this tropical guest is not frost-resistant, and in central Russia it should be grown only indoors or in a greenhouse. If the plant is planted in a container, then it can be taken outside for the summer, and brought into the room for the winter.
Jasmine sambac comes from the tropics, therefore, it is necessary to plant and grow it when the temperature is established, approaching the natural temperature for it, i.e. +20 ... + 21 ° C, so May and summer months are suitable for planting.
When grown indoors in containers, bushes can be planted at any time of the year. They are transplanted every 2 years, replacing the pot with a slightly larger one in size.
Growing Jasmine Sambac
For successful indoor cultivation, it is enough to properly place the plant and provide it with care. Like all tropical crops, Sambac jasmine needs warm and humid air. It should warm up to + 20 ° C in winter and + 30 ° C in summer.
Watering the bush is necessary to keep the soil moist. If the air is too dry, then spray irrigation of the leaves is organized. This should be done so that the spray is scattered by the fog, but does not fall in drops.
Video: Growing Sambac jasmine at home
In the natural environment, jasmine sambac is a plant up to 3 m high, adapted to the 10–11th winter hardiness zones. Permissible winter temperature for it is a range from + 4 ° C to -1 ° C. In open ground in Russia, it will die, so for cultivation, choose cultivated varieties of Sambaka, intended for indoor floriculture.
Selection of a place for landing
Choose a place where the roots can spread freely. In the southern regions, plant bushes far enough from the foundation, walls and fences so that the growing jasmine does not create dense thickets. Check if it will block the view from the window or interfere with any communication systems.
Did you know? In a private house, jasmine bushes are planted outside the bedroom windows to fill it with a relaxing aroma, perfect for falling asleep.
In the natural environment, jasmine grows above sea level to an altitude of 800 m on rich loams, clay loams or sandy soils with regular irrigation. Soil acidity ranges from 6.0 to 7.5 pH. Good drainage is required, as waterlogging kills all types of jasmine that exist.
For planting in pots, it is recommended to use the following soil composition:
- 2 parts of peat;
- 1 part perlite.
To prepare the landing zone in the open ground, dig a hole 2 times deeper and wider than the root layer. Mix the removed soil with compost and peat moss. This enriches the soil, reduces its density, allows the roots to grow and develop better.
To remove the plant from the container in which it arrived from the nursery, carefully secure the base of the pot. Tilt it to the side. Tap on the outside to loosen the soil. Tap until the earthen ball extends freely. Then gently pull the shoots. Soft containers can be removed simply by cutting them to the side.
Important! For planting, it is recommended to use clay pots. They contribute to the health of jasmine roots.
To plant jasmine in containers, you need to prepare a rather large capacity so that the root system can support the green mass of the bush. It should be 2 times the diameter of the roots. At the bottom you need to lay a drain of fine pebbles, on top of a layer of soil mixture. If the planted plant will stand on the terrace, then cover the soil with a layer of mulch. It will maintain optimal air humidity and prevent pests from entering the soil.
In the first week after planting, the plant should be provided with watering 2-3 times a week, and then this can be done less often. Also install it in a shaded area for the first days.
When planting in open ground, the same steps will be followed.. But keep in mind that the pit should be 3 times more roots.The meaning of this size is to give the plant as much loose space for the development of the root system.
In the wild, sambac jasmine is spread by seed. But in commercial gardening, it is propagated by cuttings. It can also multiply by dividing the bushes into parts.
It is better to take shoots for reproduction in the summer. You need to have at least 2 nodes each. In order to provide the seedlings with the correct humidity after planting, it is necessary to cover the planting capacity with a film, creating a greenhouse effect. This will help cuttings to take root faster.
Jasmine can also be propagated by seed. - if you are lucky and instead of flowers, fruits have formed that will turn into seed boxes. But given that this is a long way, most likely you will decide to propagate your bush with cuttings.
The method of growing jasmine from cuttings, below, can be used for all varietiesincluding arabic jasmine, spanish, indian, ordinary, italian, asian, winter.
Important! Lotions of jasmine decoction will help those who work hard at the computer in the treatment of sore eyes.
- Start by grafting the tip of a healthy jasmine stem.
- Make an oblique cut where the branch meets the main trunk of the plant. Cut the workpiece into pieces 15 cm long.
- Remove the leaves from the bottom of the handle.
- Dip it in a powder to stimulate root growth.
- Prepare a container with a mixture of 2 parts peat and 1 part perlite or sand.
- Irrigate the soil with water from a spray bottle.
- Make holes with a pencil and plant a handle in each of them.
- Install planted plants in a room with a temperature of + 24 ° C away from direct sunlight.
- It takes about 1 month to root, after which the bushes can be transplanted into the soil to optimize the development of the root system.
- After rooting, seedlings are planted in open ground or left to grow in pots.
To multiply the bush by layering, you will need to prepare another pot with soil mixture. On the mother plant, choose an escape. Bend it slightly and apply a few scratches in the place where it will be in contact with the soil. Press to the ground in a separate pot with a metal bracket. Top up the soil. To water.
Seeds need to be prepared in order to grow seedlings from them 3 months before planting in a permanent place. To do this, you need peat or potted soil, as well as a container for germination.
- Soak the seeds for 24 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Fill the container with planting mixture.
- Plant seeds in it, sprinkle with a layer of soil of 1 cm.
- Sprinkle water from a spray bottle.
- Cover with polyethylene to create a greenhouse effect.
- Put in a sunny room.
- Moisten the soil as it dries.
- When the seedlings will have 2 pairs of real leaves, transplant each plant in a separate pot.
Seedlings must grow at least 3 months before transplanting into the ground. If the bushes are designed as indoor, then they will grow in their pots for 2 years, until the roots need a large capacity
After planting, plant care includes several items:
- Jasmine should be watered if the soil has visually dried out.
- He will need fertilizer. But the frequency of their application depends on whether it is a potted plant or bush in open ground.
- He will also need to periodically wipe the leaves from dust.
- Humidify the air if it is too hot indoors or outdoors.
- And of course, prune to ensure lush flowering.
Did you know? Jasmine pollinators are butterflies and bees. In order to get fruits and seeds, flowering indoor jasmine must be taken out at night. This is especially true with the full moon, when the floral aroma becomes the most intense.
If Jasmine Sambac grows in a pot, then the ideal watering is to pour water into the pan under the flower as much as it fits. Leave it on for 30–40 minutes, and then see if there is any liquid left in the pan. If the saucer is dry, then add more. But if the water remains, then drain the remainder.
When grown outdoors, the plant is watered once a week and the degree of soil moisture is controlled. Excessive moisture will rot the roots and stems. It is important to keep the soil cool and moist, but no frills.
Pruning and fertilizer
Pruning arabic jasmine is the key to copious flowering. Branches higher than 17 cm must be cut to stimulate further flowering. Do it in the middle of summer. If too few flowers have formed on jasmine, then you need to trim the ends of the branches, and then add fertilizer with a high potassium content.
If you do not like pruning, then you can not do it. This does not affect plant health - only flowering, which occurs in several stages. After the first wave of flowers fades, jasmine is slightly cut. This stimulates branching. The good news is that you won’t be able to damage jasmine, as there is no “wrong pruning”. There are no special points on the branches that cannot be cut above or below.
Trimming should always precede fertilizer application. If the plant is grown in open ground, then granular top dressing is introduced in early spring. Then abundantly watered and then continue to feed the bush quarterly
In room conditions, fertilizers are applied monthly from spring to autumn. The composition should contain a lot of potassium and be in liquid form. Top dressing can be sprayed on the leaves or applied under the root. If the plant has just become ill, then top dressing is not introduced.
Due to the abundance of flowers, you might think that the bush needs an additional portion of fertilizer. But this is not so. This culture is a very moderate consumer.. In order not to worry that jasmine is lacking in nutrients, use granular slow-release products. This optimizes their consumption.
Important! For indoor and outdoor jasmine bushes, various fertilizers and treatment methods are needed.
This perennial prefers plenty of sunshine.. But too bright direct sunlight will be harmful to him. They should be no more than 2 hours a day, because white flowers under the scorching rays acquire a yellowish tint. When grown indoors, a place near the window with the right balance of sunlight and shade is ideal.
Humidity and air temperature
As for the climate, tropical monsoons with a minimum rainfall of 60 mm per year will be optimal in the natural environment. The plant does not tolerate temperatures well below + 10 ° C; therefore, when grown in open ground in the southern regions, the plant will need winter shelter. In summer, the ideal temperature will be +18 ... + 26 ° C. In winter, you can try lowering the temperature to +13 ... + 15 ° C. For proper wintering, this evergreen plant will need 1-2 months of cool air.
Jasmine does not like moist soil, regardless of where it grows - in open ground or in containers, so the ground should be well drained to avoid overmoistening. As for air humidity, it should be the most common - 70%. If the air becomes dry enough in the summer heat, then jasmine is sprayed in the morning with water from a spray bottle. Do not install the plant in winter near heating appliances, so as not to overdry it.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Growing Sambaka can be accompanied by diseases, like any other plant.. They arise on stems and leaves. Infection is accompanied by the appearance of spots and subsequent wilting. Various natural remedies are used for treatment.
The plant can also be damaged by pests. Among them:
- flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis);
- midge (Contarinia maculipennis);
- ticks (Polyphagotarsonemus latus);
- spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus);
- jasmine whitefly (Aleuroclava jasmini).
Any plant will flourish if it creates conditions close to natural, therefore for Sambak create conditions that mimic the tropical climate - warm and humid. But from excess moisture appears rot, Fusarium wilting, other diseases. Another reason for the increase in morbidity is insect vectors of pathogenic microflora. For example, aphids. Having sucked the juice, they leave a sticky coating on the leaves, which becomes a medium for the propagation of sooty fungi.
For the prevention of diseases you will need:
- observe the correct watering conditions;
- provide the plant with enough sun and fresh air;
- do not supercool the soil;
- fertilize regularly, as strong bushes are less susceptible to disease.
Important! Jasmine has astringent properties and can be used to treat purulent tonsillitis with rinses.
If the plant is sick, then first check whether the conditions in which it grows correspond to the reference. If not, then eliminate the shortcomings, and then isolate the diseased plant from the rest to prevent the spread of disease. The next step is to remove the damaged parts of jasmine. And then the bush is treated with fungicides or a mixture of baking soda and water. Insecticides are used to control insects.
Brilliant evergreen leaves give the bush a polished look. To keep the leaves as beautiful, they sometimes need to be wiped with a damp cloth to clean them of dust that settles on them.
To successfully grow Sambac jasmine, follow these tips:
- The root system of the plant should be warm, so that is a tropical culture.
- The Orleans maiden is considered the fastest. She may need a little pruning in the middle of summer.
- An indicator of the need for watering is the visual dryness of the soil.
- From time to time, a little wilting between waterings will be helpful to jasmine. This stimulates the development of the protective properties of the bush.
- This crop belongs to moderate consumers of fertilizers, so do not overfeed.
- Do not fertilize plants in winter. They should get a rest period from intensive growth.
- Pruning is necessary for jasmine. But in winter, when growth is slowed down, they do not plan it. It will be difficult for the plant to recover after the procedure, so cut only in the summer.
It is quite possible to grow jasmine at home. To do this, you only need to give him the necessary minimum attention. And then the plant will delight you with abundant and long flowering.