All About Juniper Spartan
Growing evergreen conifers in summer cottages has gained great popularity today. They not only adorn the local area, but also create a cozy atmosphere. One of these plants is juniper. On sale there is a wide selection of varieties of this culture, among which it is worth paying attention to juniper Spartan - it will not only become a worthy object of landscape design, but also will bring considerable benefits.
Chinese Juniper is an evergreen coniferous plant that has been used for centuries in the design of garden zones in China and Japan. It was introduced to Europe in the 18th century and aroused great interest in itself from connoisseurs of decorative cultures and, of course, breeders. Thanks to the work of scientists, many varieties of this type of juniper were bred, and Spartan is one of them. The culture has a number of excellent properties that make it a real fit in any climatic conditions.The plant tolerates frosts well, it is not afraid of drought and other "vagaries" of nature. In addition, the shrub grows quickly, has a beautiful shape, due to which it enjoys considerable attention from landscape designers. It should be noted and the healing properties of juniper. In folk medicine, all parts of the plant, including cones and roots, are used to make medicinal drinks, ointments.
Did you know? The modern gin alcoholic drink was first invented by the Austrian scientist Franciscus Silvius in the 16th century as a remedy.
The culture has a rich chemical composition, including vitamins, minerals, essential oils, organic acids, tannins and other beneficial elements that have a positive effect on the body. Juniper-based products help not only strengthen the immune system, but also in the treatment of diseases such as stomach ulcers, diabetes mellitus, gout, neurosis, eczema, problems in the respiratory tract, circulatory system, etc.
The scientific description of Juniperus Spartan (Juniperus chinensis Spartan) can be characterized by the following points:
- Direct, fast-growing shrub.
- The plant has vertical curved shoots forming a pyramidal or spindle-shaped crown with a maximum diameter of about 2.5 m.
- Annual growth is about 10 cm in height and 5 cm in diameter. Adult shrub reaches a height of 5 m.
- The needles are scaly, tightly pressed, light green in color.
- Fruits are dark blue cones.
- It is undemanding to soils, but prefers fertile drained soil.
- It grows in well-lit places and in partial shade.
- Frost resistance zone - 5th. This suggests that juniper is well taking root and developing in the middle zone of Russia, where winter frosts do not exceed -30 ° С.
Juniper planting is carried out in late April or early May. In order for the plant to take root safely in a new place, it is important to choose the right site and prepare a nutritional soil composition. Draw a plan in advance of the floristic composition in order to determine the exact "permanent residence" of the conifer, so that you do not have to transplant it later.
Video: planting and caring for juniper
Site selection and preparation
When choosing a place for planting juniper, one must take into account not only the beauty of the future landscape picture, but also the personal preferences of the plant. For culture, it is better to choose an open sunny area. In the southern regions landing in partial shade is allowed.It is impossible to plant a plant in thickened and highly darkened areas, as it will often hurt and underdevelop. Wet soil is also a considerable danger, therefore, it is recommended to lay drainage from any small stone at the bottom of the landing pit.In nature, juniper can grow on any soil, but gardeners advise planting a plant in nutritious soil from land, sand and peat, mixed in a 2: 1: 1 ratio. Complex mineral fertilizer should be added here - 200 g of Nitroammofoski should be spent on each bush. Consider also that juniper prefers slightly acidic soil.
Important! Juniper has one common disease with stone fruits — rust, so they should not be planted next.
You can increase the acidity with a weak solution of citric acid: in 10 l of water diluted 2 tbsp. l acids and water the soil so that this portion is enough for 2 m². Seedlings are best purchased in nurseries. It is advisable to buy material at the age of 3 years. Inspect the bush carefully - it should not have painful, damaged or dried shoots. Seedlings are sold, as a rule, in containers with a closed root system. When planting, you need to remove them from the packaging carefully so as not to destroy the earthen lump.
Detailed landing instructions
TOwhen all the preparatory work for the selection of the seedling and the site is completed, you can proceed directly to planting:
- Dig a landing hole. Its dimensions will depend on the dimensions of the earthen coma of the seedling, since the depth should be 2 times greater, approximately 70 cm. If a group planting is expected, observe a distance between plants of at least 2 m.
- At the bottom of the pit, lay a drainage layer of 15–20 cm.
- Sprinkle a drainage pad with nutrient soil.
- Install a seedling in the pit so that the earthen lump for a couple of centimeters rises above the soil level.
- Fill the landing and tamp lightly.
- Water abundantly, spending 15 liters of water per 1 bush. At the same time, soil can be acidified if necessary.
- Lay a layer of mulch from needles, peat or sawdust 10 cm thick.
The subtleties of care
In the wild, juniper, of course, dispenses with human intervention, being satisfied with the conditions provided by mother nature. But in the conditions of the garden plot, every owner wants to see a healthy plant that pleases with decorativeness, so you need to know all the subtleties of care.
Video: how to properly care for juniper
Watering and fertilizer
Regular watering is required by young juniper in the first two weeks after planting. Daily moisten the soil, spending on each bush up to 10 liters of water. Further watering is carried out only in dry weather. In hot weather, it is useful to sprinkle in the evenings to give the plant an opportunity to "rest". A year after planting, you can begin to apply fertilizing.
The first fertilizers are applied in the spring - in April, when the period of kidney swelling begins. You can use complex mineral compositions, for example, "Agrekol" at the rate of 25-30 g per planting. Top dressing is scattered directly on the soil under the bush and, digging, deepen by 10-15 cm, after which it is abundantly watered. Instead of a complex composition, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate can be used.
Important! Fresh manure can severely burn the superficial root system of juniper, therefore it cannot be used as fertilizer.
At the beginning of summer, the next portion of useful substances is added to provide decorative needles. A good choice would be the composition of “Magnificent needles”, with which you can conduct root dressing or spray the crown. Not only does the drug improve the condition of the needles, it also fights against pathogenic microorganisms. To fertilize the soil composition, you need to dilute 100 ml of the product in 5 liters of water.To spray 1 bush in 1.5 l of water, 30 ml of the drug is diluted. In the fall, it will not hurt to feed the bush.To do this, apply the fertilizer "Autumn", designed specifically for coniferous crops. Under 1 bush, scatter 20 g of the drug and watered abundantly. For convenience, you can immediately make a solution, diluting the dose in 5 liters of water.
Mulching and cultivation
The soil around the shrub should be mulched, i.e., sprinkled with a layer of protective material. Such a technique will help preserve soil moisture. In addition, well-chosen mulch can significantly improve the soil composition. For example, you can use peat chips, fallen needles or wood chips, which will also become a decoration of the landscape (commercially available material in different colors).
Several times during the season it is useful to loosen the soil around the juniper. Firstly, this will make it possible to get rid of weeds, and secondly, loose soil has better breathability, which is good for the root system. But you need to take into account that the roots of the plant lie quite high to the surface of the earth, so you need to loosen no deeper than 10 cm.
Haircut and Shaping
Juniper tolerates haircut and shaping. The first sanitary pruning is carried out in early spring. - from the plant remove areas that have not survived the winter period, dried up and broken. Such haircuts should be carried out periodically throughout the season. The Spartan variety crown itself looks pretty neat, so it doesn't need molding trimming. If the plants grow in a group or in the form of a hedge, it is allowed to trim the shoots, which need to be cut no more than 1/3 of the length.
Video: Juniper Mowing
Shelter for the winter
Juniper variety Spartan has good winter hardiness, withstanding a temperature drop of -30 ° C. Adult plants can not be covered, it is enough to protect only their roots by laying a thick layer of mulch, about 15 cm.
It is better to insulate young plantings so that the cold winter wind does not dry out their branches. To do this, use non-woven material (burlap, spanbond) or spruce branches. It is not recommended to cover the plants with a film - this material does not allow air to pass through, shoots can stagnate, and the bush will become sick.
To propagate juniper Spartan, you can use one of two methods:
- Seeds. This method of obtaining new seedlings takes a lot of time and does not give a guaranteed result that the new bush will be identical to the mother. At the same time, such a growing process is quite interesting. In the fall, cone berries are collected, placed in a container with warm water, then ground and seeds are extracted. They are put in a container with sand and put in the refrigerator (you can tack on the site). They begin landing in late spring. To do this, prepare a box with soil from sand and peat. The seeds are placed there (they need to be ground a little to break the upper shell), they are slightly added, watered. In the container, seedlings will grow until they reach the age of two, after which they can be transplanted to a permanent place in the open ground.
- Cuttings. This method is simpler and more reliable, therefore it is more often used by gardeners. From the middle sections of the crown, lignified shoots of 2–3 years of age are selected. Cuttings need to be plucked, not cut, each of which should be about 7–9 cm long, have 2 internodes and a heel (a fragment of the bark of the mother bush). The material is placed for 6 hours in the solution of the rooting agent (Kornevin, Radifarm), and then proceed to planting. Cuttings are planted in a container with soil consisting of earth, peat and sand, taken in a ratio of 1: 2: 2. Planting depth - 5-7 cm. The bed is abundantly watered. Rooting will last about 2.5 months, but after that the plants continue to grow in a container until next fall. Only then can they be transplanted into the open ground.
Use in landscape design
In the garden landscape, juniper looks decent in any season.In summer, it favorably sets off the beauty of flowering plants, and in winter it significantly enlivens the landscape. The plant is used in solitary, group plantings, is an indispensable addition to rockeries, alpine slides. Thanks to its pyramidal shape, Spartan juniper can become the central object of a flowerbed with a circular view, and a number of plants will completely hide an unsightly fence.
Did you know? The presence of juniper in the area disinfects the air, as the plant releases phytoncides, which kill harmful bacteria.
To create a forest glade on the site, you can arrange a composition of several varieties with different sizes and color of needles. For example, a company of the Spartan variety can create a meter-long Juniper Compressa with bluish needles and creeping varieties Hornibrookii, Nana aurea, etc. The composition can be supplemented with thuja, dwarf pine and other coniferous crops.Against the background of lawn grass, you can create a composition of conifers and plants with different flowering periods. For example, you can pick up primroses, spirea, daylilies, hydrangeas, etc. as a neighbor to juniper. Such a mixborder will attract views from early spring to late autumn. The addition can be decorative foliage crops: fern, cuffs, hosts. Landings from juniper and climbing flowering plants such as wisteria and rose will look in a special way.
Diseases and Pests
Under the right conditions for planting and keeping, Juniper Spartan has a good immunity to diseases.
Despite this, there are a number of fungal ailments that can destroy the conifer, namely:
In addition to diseases, junipers can be attacked by pests such as aphids, marble chives, etc. Their presence is characterized, as a rule, by twisting and falling of needles. To get rid of insects, you need treatment with Aktara. Moreover, the means not only spray the needles and branches, but also water the trunk circle.
The procedure is best done twice with an interval of 10-15 days. Juniper Spartan is a good choice for creating a cozy “forest” atmosphere on the site. The variety is not demanding, but at the same time prefers a respectful attitude to its person. A little love and care from the gardener will help the shrub to become a real highlight of landscape design.