Basic rules for the cultivation and care of jasmine garden
Despite its usual appearance, jasmine (or, as it is also called, mockworm) is easily recognizable as soon as it begins to bloom - delicate white inflorescences and a delicate aroma that fills the air around are probably familiar to everyone. And if you take into account his undemanding care, it is easy to understand those summer residents who grow this shrub in their areas. Jasmine will be a particularly successful solution for beginner amateur gardeners.
The subtleties of growing
Despite the general unpretentiousness of this plant, the cultivation of jasmine may require following some agrotechnical rules. First of all, it concerns the choice of location, soil preparation and adherence to the planting pattern. It is from these factors, as well as subsequent care procedures, that the appearance of the bush and its ability to bloom will depend.
Choosing a place to land
When starting to choose the optimal place for planting, it should be taken into account that jasmine does not show special demands on the soil, however, when planting it should be prepared in advance, increasing the structure and providing drainage. It should also be taken into account that even though the shrub will develop well in shaded places, its inflorescences and leaves will be faded, and the aroma is not so pronounced.
Did you know? Not all jasmine varieties have an aroma, and therefore, before buying or self-harvesting seedlings, you should clarify the variety of the future bush.
The best option would be the possibility of at least periodic receipt of sunlight. The healthy growth and development of jasmine requires a large space, so you should not plant it close to other plants. And it is better to avoid drafts and places that are blown by northerly winds, as well as lowlands with close lying groundwater.
Before planting a bush, experienced gardeners prefer to prepare the soil in advance. The soil is previously dug up by 20-30 cm, after which the landing pit itself is prepared, measuring about 50 × 50 cm. The bottom of the hole is laid out with a drainage layer, about 10 cm high. In this case, you can use natural materials such as broken brick, gravel, crushed stone or sand.
Additionally, the soil from the planting pit is fertilized by adding nitrophoska (30 g per plant). The optimal time for planting is considered either early spring (before the leaves bloom), or the beginning of autumn.
The distance between the planted jasmine bushes directly depends on the desired result:
- during group planting, landing pits are located at a distance of about 1-1.5 m from each other;
- in the process of creating a hedge, this distance can be reduced to 0.5 m.
Care during growth and after flowering
Jasmine does not bring much trouble, and its cultivation does not cause difficulties. With minimal effort, every gardener can get a healthy flowering bush. The main thing: do not forget about watering, top dressing and timely pruning of the plant.
Video: Growing and caring for jasmine
What and when to feed
The first time fertilizer should be applied to the soil no earlier than a year after planting. Usually one spring top dressing is sufficient, which is used as organic and mineral fertilizers:
- mineral - superphosphate (30 g) and potassium sulphide or urea (15 g) are dissolved in 10 l of water, the finished solution is enough for two bushes;
- organic - slurry is diluted with water in a proportion of 1:10.
If desired, you can also make fertilizers after the flowering of jasmine.This procedure is not mandatory, but will significantly improve the appearance of the flowers and enhance the aroma for the next year. In this case, emphasis should be placed on such elements as phosphorus and potassium (for example, you can use any fertilizer marked “Autumn” or “Phosphorus-potassium”). Additionally, this procedure will help the plant to winter more easily and recover faster with the onset of spring.
Jasmine has low drought tolerance, and therefore needs frequent watering, especially during periods of lack of rain and hot weather. You need to know that in response to over-dried soil, the plants instantly wither and the leaves turn yellow. First of all, it concerns young and recently planted bushes. Seedlings are watered every other day, at the rate of 25 liters per 1 m².
The soil under adult plants is moistened as necessary, in the same volume. An important procedure is also the loosening of the soil, which is recommended to be carried out after each irrigation to a depth of about 8 cm. This approach will not only help maintain moisture, but also provide an oxygen flow to the root system. Mulching of the root circle with organic matter (straw, foliage, sawdust, etc.) can be a substitute for loosening.
Did you know? In the language of flowers, jasmine is a symbol of happiness and deep affection.
Pruning is a mandatory procedure, which not only helps to give the shrub the necessary shape, but also acts as a prevention of various fungal diseases.
1- shortening faded shoots to a healthy kidney; 2- shortening of strong growth; 3- removal of dry and damaged branches
It can be carried out at any time of the year, except winter, but in each season it will pursue different goals:
- in early spring (the optimal period is before the buds begin to bloom, although a later time is allowed) - sanitary pruning, which involves the removal of all damaged, deformed or frozen branches;
- in the middle of summer (month - July, after flowering is over) - forming pruning that allows you to achieve the desired shape (the central branches of the bush are cut, young shoots are pinched, the tops of two- and three-year-old shoots that have already bloomed are shortened);
- in the early to mid-autumn (September-October) - anti-aging pruning, during which all old shoots are cut.
Important! Anti-aging pruning is also allowed in the spring, but no more than once every 4–5 years.
How to prepare jasmine for winter
Possessing high winter resistance, jasmine does not need special preparation. The maximum is the mulching of the soil of the near-stem circle using compost or humus (layer thickness - at least 5 cm), which will avoid freezing of the root system. Adult bushes can also be tied in order to avoid breakage of branches under the weight of snow.
An exception may be young seedlings, which do not have time to grow well before the onset of cold weather. Such bushes can be covered with light material and loosely tied with a rope.
Often, gardeners are faced with the inability to purchase planting material (for example, too high a price). In this case, the seedlings can be obtained independently, by reproduction. In total, there are three main methods, each of which has both its advantages and some difficulties of the process itself.
After the final ripening of seeds on the selected bush, they need to be collected, dried a little and sown in open ground before frost (depending on climatic and weather conditions, this may be November or December), but with snowfall. Planting material is embedded in the ground shallowly, by 2–4 cm, after which the soil is covered with agrofibre, and from above with pine branches.
With the onset of spring, the covering material is removed, and from the soil moistened and warmed by the first rays of the sun, a shoot of jasmine will appear. Before its strengthening, shoots should be closed from the sun and regularly watered.
The disadvantages of this method of reproduction include the complexity of the entire process, as well as a low percentage of seedlings. However, there are pluses - the resulting seedlings will differ markedly from other bushes with stable immunity and frost resistance.
Important! Young bushes will not be ready for transplanting to a new place only in 1–1.5 years, after the tree branches are woody.
Cuttings and shoots
The best time for preparing and rooting cuttings is the beginning of summer - the period when the bushes are full of vitality and it is easy to evaluate their varietal characteristics. Young, strong shoots, cut into pieces of 12 cm each, will act as planting material. In this case, the leaves from the bottom of the handle are removed.
Planting can be carried out both in the greenhouse and on the open ground using glass jars, which will create the necessary greenhouse effect. The soil under the cuttings should be rich in nutrients and drained. In the process of rooting, the cuttings will need regular ventilation, protection from direct sunlight and frequent watering.
At the same time, even after the appearance of the first growth points, it is not recommended to remove the shelter - the plant is still too weak and fragile for exposure to sunlight and wind. Before the onset of cold weather, seedlings are spudded and covered with wood shavings or needles. New bushes will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place by spring or next fall.
Important! Before planting, you need to check the cuttings: this can be done by bending them into a ring. Quality shoots should not break, and the bark on them — crack.
This method of reproduction is usually used in the process of transplanting jasmine to a new place and is carried out in early spring or autumn. In order to dig up a bush with minimal injuries, it is first carefully watered and only after that it is taken out of the ground.
Further, the roots are untangled, washed well and divided into uniform parts. After the separation of the bush, planting is carried out - necessarily in fertile soil and with further watering. The whole rooting process takes no more than one month.
When jasmine blooms
There are many varieties of garden jasmine. The flowering period of the bush depends on them. Usually the first flowers on a plant appear in late May and remain on it until the end of August. However, there are some varieties of jasmine, the flowering period of which can last in the fall, right up to the first frosts.
When to collect jasmine
Many people know that jasmine flowers can not only please with their appearance and aroma in spring and summer. Gardeners also collect it for making aromatic oils and tea. You can do this on any day of the flowering period, but you need to know one feature of this plant.
Important! If the flowers are planned to be used in the near future, then any of them will be suitable for collection. But for long-term storage, it is recommended to pick only buds.
Jasmine flowers tend to bloom not at sunrise, as is usually the case, but at night, and therefore it is better to harvest raw materials in the early morning, before sunrise, at the time of mass disclosure. It is during this time that all useful substances gather in jasmine and in large concentration.
Despite the unpretentiousness of the plant, every gardener from time to time faces force majeure circumstances. In order not to lose the bush, as well as continue to enjoy its appearance and aroma, you need to be prepared for such situations and know what to do.
Why leaves turn black
It happens that the foliage on the jasmine bush begins to blacken and curl.Many summer residents are afraid of fungal diseases, however, the problem lies elsewhere. Often, especially inexperienced gardeners, trying to make the plant as good as possible, apply too much fertilizer than spoil the root system.
The way out of the situation is the addition of a biostimulator to the soil: for example, for 10 liters of water, only one Zircon ampoule will be sufficient.
Causes of Yellowing Leaves
The most common cause of yellowing of the leaves is an insufficient amount of watering or nutrients in the soil. In the latter case, top dressing, which contain nitrogen in its composition, may be required. Drying of the leaves can cause a fungal disease (for example, gray rot) or too deep root neck.
In the first case, it is recommended to carry out systematic preventive treatment with the participation of fungicidal and insecticidal drugs (depending on the type of disease), in the second case, to free the bush at the base from excess soil with the onset of spring.
Jasmine is rare, but can be attacked by various types of insect pests. The most common ones include:
- Spider mite - a small insect (not more than 5 mm), which, eating the juice of the plant, entangles its foliage with a cobweb. As a result, small spots of light yellow color can be seen on the surface of the plant. To control the pest, the bushes are treated with acaricides or insecticides, at least 2 times, at intervals of 10-14 days.
- Weevils - small beetles, which, despite their size, can lead to the destruction of the whole plant. In order to get rid of pests, jasmine is processed with chlorophos, and with a small number of pests, insects, as well as their larvae, they are manually collected and destroyed.
In general, jasmine refers to plants that do not require careful care. Adequate watering and annual dressing will provide the garden with a beautiful flowering shrub that will delight for a long time with its exquisite aroma. We should not forget about timely pruning, because this procedure not only makes it possible to get the desired shape of the bush, but also acts as a prevention of various fungal diseases, which, if they occur, can easily spread throughout the site.