What is bought - description and properties
Kupena (Latin: Polygonatum) is a perennial herbaceous flower that belongs to the Asparagus family. As garden plantings, it is used for landscaping and decorating flower beds. In addition, the beneficial properties of the purchased allow its use for medicinal purposes. Simple planting rules and care tips will help grow this plant in your garden.
Kupena is found in the forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Small white flowers of the perennial make it look like a lily of the valley, and have the shape of a bell, peduncles - flexible. White petals closer to the edges are painted green. The buds are arranged in whorls in the axils of the leaves of 1-4 pieces. Flowering occurs in May - June. The floral aroma is pleasant and very intense.
Flowers are pollinated mainly by bumblebees, less often self-pollination occurs. In the period from July to August, the fruits bought ripen - round, blue-black berries, each of which contains 1–9 seeds. Large ovoid leaves grow in whorls of 3–9 pcs. The stems are long, arched. The genus has several dozen species. Depending on the species, the height of the plant reaches from 10 cm to 1.5 m. The length of the leaves is 4–10 cm, width is 2–5 cm.
Poisonous plant or not
Kupena has healing properties and is used as a medicine. However, the plant is considered poisonous. Given this fact, it is necessary to separately indicate contraindications for use.It is strictly forbidden to use all parts of the plant (roots, leaves, fruits) for persons under the age of majority, as well as for women during pregnancy and lactation.
- Also, contraindications include intolerance to the components that make up the plant, such as:
- alkaloid glyconin;
- cardiac glycosides;
- steroidal saponins;
- chelidonic and ascorbic acids;
Does it have a rhizome
The above mentioned underground organ purchased has a woody structure. Branching roots grow horizontally and are located close to the surface of the earth - in the upper layers of the soil. On the knotted rhizome there are round “seals” - traces of dead stems that are formed from numerous root growth points.
The genus has about 50 species. Decorative varieties are used in folk medicine. They are also planted in gardens to decorate shaded areas. Garden bought looks very beautiful even after flowering. Next, you should familiarize yourself with the description and purpose of each of them.
Description of the most common species will help you choose the best option for growing, namely:
- pharmacy, or fragrant;
- squat, or low;
Important! Particular attention is drawn to plants of variegated varieties, the leaf plates of which are distinguished by bright, white, longitudinal stripes.
Pharmacy, or fragrant
A bush reaching a height of about 50 cm. On the stems, parallel to each other, are large elongated leaves. Flowers grow on flexible peduncles. The shape of the flowers resembles white bells. Blooming fragrant bought in late spring for four weeks. The plant bears fruit in black and blue berries. Harvest ripens after pollination is completed.
The plant is 30-60 cm high. The stem is thin, green, grows vertically. The leaves are xiphoid, light green. They reach 17 cm in length and about 2 cm in width. The young leaves located below grow alternately, and the upper leaves are arranged in whorls of 4–8 pcs.White oblong flowers form on declining peduncles. The buds open in mid-summer.
The view of a multiflora bought is a plant up to 1 m high. The stem is arched, green. On the upper part are rounded leaves. Of the whorls located in the leaf sinuses, white buds of 5-6 pieces appear, which open in July. Flowers gracefully hang on thin peduncles. Fruiting occurs in August.
The species is resistant to drought and can grow widely even on rocky soils. A plant up to 50 cm tall has a long rhizome. Wide, pointed at the ends of the leaves are placed alternately on the stem. White fragrant flowers are in deciduous sinuses in pairs. Broadleaf blossoms bought in late May for two weeks.
Squat, or low
A short plant growing up to 30 cm. Stems and leaves form dense thickets, grows slowly. The leaves are light green; they are arranged alternately on the stem. The flowers are large, white-green in color. Squat buys are grown in rockeries.
The flower is 2.5–5 cm high. The stem is smooth, green. The leaves are straight and smooth: the upper ones grow in parallel, the lower ones - alternately. The leaves are 3.5 cm long and 0.6 cm wide. Short pedicels are arranged vertically. The flowers are purple, tubular, single. Flowering occurs in May. Plants grow densely, forming vast thickets. Experts recommend Huker for cultivation on rocky ground.
A graceful plant strewn with delicate purple bells collected in whorled hands. The leaves are xiphoid, elongated, painted in a peculiar greenish-silver color, located in whorls of 4-6 pcs. The length of the leaves is 15 cm, the width is 1-2 cm. The stems are dark purple up to 50 cm high. The flowers are twisted, they grow in deciduous sinuses in pairs (2 pcs.). Habitat - deciduous forests. Flowering begins in the period from May to June. The plant bears fruit in red berries.
Planting and caring for the purchased
To grow a bath in your garden, you need to familiarize yourself with the planting rules and care requirements. Next, you should study in more detail how to plant a flower and take care of it in the future.
- seat selection;
- preparing the plant for the winter period.
Did you know? Another name bought - "Solomon Seal." According to legend, King Solomon, having studied the medicinal properties of the plant, branded its root with his seal - a kind of “quality mark”.
Kupena grows well in shady areas. Tall varieties can be planted in open sunny areas, but in this case the flowers will develop worse and grow slowly. When choosing a landing site, it is important to consider that the purchase grows 12-15 years and does not tolerate transplantation. Therefore, it will constantly grow in one place.
It is also necessary to pay attention that the flower does not respond well to the accumulation of moisture in the soil, therefore, it is advisable to plant it in areas with a deep occurrence of groundwater. If the area where the flower will grow is correctly selected, further care will require minimal effort.
Step-by-step landing instructions
Before planting, it is necessary to prepare the selected area in advance by removing weeds and grass, as well as digging the site. Then you need to prepare seedlings, removing them from the container along with an earthen lump. Next, you can start planting.
- Fertilize the soil with compost and wood ash in equal parts, loosen. Heavy soil can be diluted with sand and small gravel.
- Deepen the seedlings by 15 cm. In this case, it is necessary to observe a distance between them of at least 20 cm.
- Sprinkle with earth and pour 5-6 liters of water.
Purchased extremely unpretentious care. Since this plant is usually planted in the shade, abundant watering is not required. Watering should be moderate and only in the hot season, pouring up to 4-5 liters of water under one flower. The rest of the time (winter, spring, autumn), the plant will have enough natural rainfall. Loosening the soil after wetting is not recommended, as there is a risk of damaging the roots, which are located close to the surface.
Since all the necessary mineral and nutrients were introduced into the soil during planting, the bath should be fertilized no more than once a year. DTo do this, in spring it is necessary to add top dressing to the soil, consisting of compost or manure (about one handful of organic matter per flower).
Soil care comes down to mulching and getting rid of weeds. Mulch is used to protect the surface of the soil from the formation of a poorly permeable crust. For this, you can lay a small layer, about 5 cm, of leaves and slivers around the flower. Weeds should be pulled out of the ground, but not weed, as this procedure can injure the root system.
Winter preparations include seasonal pruning. Spend it in the fall, removing all the stems. As a result, only hemp should remain. In the spring, when the snow melts, young greenery will grow rapidly. Shelter from the cold is not required, since the bath is able to withstand even the most severe frosts.
A kupen is usually planted in rows, in several copies. In order not to purchase a large amount of planting material in the store, the plant can be propagated independently at home. Next, a detailed description of each method follows.
- by seeds;
- division of the bush.
Did you know? In Tibet, they believe that decoctions and fees, prepared on the basis of a pharmacy purchased, contribute to longevity.
Seed propagation purchased is considered the most time-consuming and time-consuming. However, this method allows you to get multiple instances at once. Plant seedlings in open ground in the spring. Flowering planted in this way bought will begin only after 3-5 years.
Propagate the flower with seeds as follows:
- Collect ripe berries and get seeds from them.
- Fill a shallow box with a soil mixture of peat and sand (1: 1).
- Sow the seeds in the prepared soil.
- Place the container in the refrigerator and store there at a temperature of + 2 ° C. Under such conditions, the seeds will be stratified for 3-4 months.
- Put the box with landings in a warm place for another three months.
- Then put it back in the refrigerator for about 3-4 months. During this time, seed germination will begin.
- After stratification, the container should be stored in a well-lit place at a temperature of + 20 ° С.
This method involves the multiplication of rhizome segments, and is considered the most preferable, since rooting occurs rather quickly, and the emergence of young shoots begins as early as next season. So, in order to propagate the kupena by division, you need to dig it out of the ground and carefully divide the root into several parts. It is important to ensure that on each part there are growth points - the so-called seals. Then, the obtained fragments should be immediately placed in open ground and watered. Irrigation should not be too plentiful, it is enough to pour 3-4 liters of water on each plant.
Purchased is considered a medicinal plant. All its parts have a healing effect. In particular, rhizome and shoots have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic and expectorant properties. In addition, due to the beneficial composition of the plant, preparations prepared on its basis help to stop bleeding. The plant as a medicine is used only in the framework of traditional medicine.
Application tinctures purchased
For the manufacture of tinctures and decoctions, a pharmacy or multi-flowered one is used. Tinctures from the roots treat bronchitis, a stomach and duodenal ulcer, hemorrhoids. Compresses based on it are used to restore blood circulation with hematomas and bruises. Decoctions help get rid of freckles and acne on the face. Tinctures are used orally for migraines, heart failure, as well as for the treatment of gout.
Important! An overdose of tinctures bought can lead to food poisoning. It is important to clearly dose the use of the drug.
To prepare the medication for external use, you need to cook 50 g of grated rhizomes bought in 0.5 l of water. Then insist for four hours and strain. It should be used with extreme caution, since the drug can cause burns on the skin.
For internal use, you can prepare an infusion. To do this, pour 20 g of chopped rhizomes with 200 ml of water and cook. Then insist for four hours and strain. Take 1 tbsp. l 3-4 times a day. Berries are taken orally in order to provoke vomiting in case of poisoning.
Pests and diseases
The plant has a strong immunity and high resistance to diseases and pests. However, slugs can form in dense thickets. Their appearance is explained by the dampness and shadow that thickened leaves form. You can get rid of parasites simply by collecting them from stems and leaves. For prevention, you need to fill the ground under the flowers with a layer of wood ash (about 5 cm) and pieces of eggshell.
Dense shoots bought bought hide unsightly patches of land in the garden and look great in the shade of trees. Given that the plant is extremely unpretentious in care, it is not difficult to grow it. Rhizomes of a flower can be used as folk medicines, but only after consultation with your doctor.