Rhododendron Hybrid Hackmans Sharman
Rhododendrons (Latin name Rhododendron), or azaleas, are very popular ornamental shrubs grown mainly for showy flowers. Among the huge variety of varieties and hybrid forms of this plant belonging to the heather family, the most interesting are the evergreen varieties of rhododendrons that can decorate the site all year round. These are the spectacular hybrid Hackmans Charmant, which will be discussed below.
The Hachmanns Charmant rhododendron hybrid was created in the world-famous German family-type nursery “Baumschule H. Hachmann”, located near Hamburg and has been specializing in the cultivation of interesting varieties and hybrids of this perennial for 70 years. The calling card of all rhododendrons is “from Hackmann,” and there are already more than two and a half thousand of them today - this is a long and incredibly beautiful flowering, excellent frost resistance and high immunity to diseases and pests.But even among other breeding achievements of the Hackmann family, Charmant is a real gem, which even emphasizes the name of the variety (the French word “charmant” is known to everyone, it translates as “beautiful”, “charming”). From a botanical point of view, Hachmann’s Charmant is a perennial evergreen fast-growing shrub that grows in height, depending on the characteristics of care and cutting, from 100 to 300 cm. On average, 10 years after planting, a hybrid reaches 150 cm in height.
Important! Hachmann’s Charmant rhododendron flowers have almost no aroma, and this, perhaps, is the only drawback of the hybrid.
The crown of the plant is dense, highly branched, has a rounded shape, but nevertheless, the bush usually grows wider a little more than in height. The leaves are oval or slightly oblong, rather large (60 to 150 mm long, 30 to 50 mm wide), dark green, juicy, dense, matte. The tip of the sheet plate may be blunt or pointed, the base is always rounded. The surface is smooth in the adult leaf and covered with a light pile in the young. The flowers are bisexual, have the shape of wide bells and are collected in spectacular dense corymbose inflorescences of 15–20 pieces.
The size of the entire inflorescence is up to 150 mm, one flower is up to 50 mm in diameter. A characteristic feature of the hybrid is the presence of two contrasting shades of flowers: the main tone is light pink, the border of the petals is bright burgundy. A spot of the same color is decorated with a large central petal. The fruit is a box consisting of five wings. Inside it there are numerous small seeds in the form of sticks 0.5–2 mm long. The root system is superficial, compact. The total life span of the plant is about 100 years.
To make a decision about planting a particular ornamental plant on their own plot, gardeners are usually interested not only in the external distinguishing features of the variety, but also in its “technical” characteristics, namely: everything you need to know about the agricultural technique of growing this crop.
For the Hachmann’s Charmant hybrid, the following data are important:
|Annual growth||Impressive - 60–80 mm, with good care - up to 100 mm|
|Light attitude||Needs diffuse lighting and protection from direct midday sun|
|Moisture||Drought-resistant, does not tolerate stagnation of water in the soil|
|Soil structure||Light, loose, well-drained and rich in humus|
|Acid-base balance of the soil||Acidic pH - from 4.5 to 6.5|
|Flowering period||The bush begins to bloom in May or June, in colder regions - in July. The total flowering time is about 4 weeks.|
|Frost resistance||The hybrid belongs to the 5th zone of frost resistance, which means that the bush is able to tolerate a decrease in temperature to -26 ° C|
|Use in landscape design||As a tapeworm, in group plantings, for unformed hedges. Great for creating compositions with coniferous representatives, fits well with alpine slides and rock gardens ("sekitei")|
Landing and further care
It is recommended to purchase a seedling of the Hachmann’s Charmant hybrid on a specialized site of the originator or from its official dealers who successfully work around the world, including those on the Russian market. However, the problem is that the hybrid is very popular, so it is not always available, so it is better to make an order in advance. To plant rhododendrons, like any other perennials, it is necessary during the period when the plant is at rest.The second condition, favorable for planting, is moist soil. The superficial root system of the shrub is defenseless before the soil dries up while the plant has not yet had time to take root. Thus, rhododendron can be planted either in the early spring, until active sap flow begins, and, of course, before the start of budding, or in the fall, about 1.5–2 months before the start of night frosts.
Soil can be acidified by making it suitable for Hachmann’s Charmant using peat, sawdust or coniferous forest litter. By the way, the soil taken in a pine forest is ideal for planting a rhododendron, in this case no additional additives are needed.
Important! The main feature of all rhododendrons is that these plants, like most coniferous representatives, develop well in acidic soil and do not tolerate even a small amount of lime.
If a suitable gardener does not have the right soil, you can prepare it yourself on the basis of the available leaf or garden soil, mixing one part of it with the following components:
- peat - 1 part;
- sand - ½ parts;
- agroperlite or pine bark - 2 parts.
As an organic top dressing, if the source land is too poor, you can add humus and vermicompost, but in no case fresh manure, which lowers the acidity of the substrate. The landing pit should be dug at least 3 weeks before landing. Its volume should be 2-3 times the size of the root system of the seedling (the closer the composition of the earth is to ideal parameters, the smaller the pit can be, and vice versa). At the bottom of the landing pit, a drainage layer of gravel or broken brick must be providedso that the roots of the seedling do not become wet due to stagnation of water.A small amount of the prepared soil mixture is poured over the drainage, abundantly watered with not too cold water, a seedling is placed on top (if it was sold in a container, you do not need to root the root system, planting in this case is carried out with an earthen lump, by transshipment method) and carefully fill the ground with the entire free volume of the pit, periodically ramming it to avoid the formation of voids inside. At the end of the pit closure, the bush needs to be watered again, carefully taking care that the root neck is not deepened after subsidence, but does not rise above the ground.
Did you know? Among rhododendrons, there are not just poisonous species, but real "killers": the neurotoxin acetylandromedol contained in such plants has a depressing effect on the central nervous system and can lead to death.
Subsequent care of the Hachmann’s Charmant hybrid involves the following agro-technical measures:
- Watering. Abundant watering to the German drought-tolerant hybrid is needed only during the laying of the buds and the flowering itself.But even at this time it is very important not to allow stagnation of moisture in the soil and to carefully monitor that the water for irrigation is warm and soft (ideally rain, but if not, then at least well-kept).
- Mulching the trunk circle. This agrotechnical technique allows you to retain moisture in the soil for longer, protect the surface root system of the rhododendron from overheating, and also block the development of weeds. As a mulch, it is best to use coniferous needles, pine bark or litter from a pine forest, since such organic material is excellent as a future (after decaying) organic fertilizer and at the same time compensates for the violation of the acid-base balance in the soil, which is inevitable, including due to the use of water containing various impurities, including salt. The layer of mulch should be quite thick, at least 10 cm, and from time to time it needs to be renewed, applying fresh organics directly on top of the sagging and decayed.
- Top dressing. To properly fertilize rhododendron means to provide abundant and prolonged flowering of the bush. There are some important secrets here. In early spring, it is best to add organic matter to the soil, for example, compost, humus or well-rotten manure. Such top dressing acts slowly and provides the "tab" of the proper development of the plant for the entire season. Alternatively, special fertilizers for rhododendrons and azaleas “Biopon” granules, “Wladyslaw Exclusive”, “Flautando”, “Roseum Elegans”, “Vila”, “Activin”, “Plantafol Elite”, etc. can be used next. , after flowering has ended, approximately since the second half of summer, quick-acting complex mineral fertilizers are applied, first of all, potash and phosphorus fertilizers (nitrogen is also needed in the bush during this period, but in metered amounts, because of the excess green mass, the development of which stimulates this element, the plant may be unprepared for the coming frost). Another important component that rhododendron needs is iron. From its deficiency, chlorosis begins to develop in the plant, expressed in the appearance of yellow veins on the leaves. To compensate for iron deficiency, it is best to use various chelates, and it is recommended that they be applied not under the root, but by spraying.
- Pruning. An evergreen hybrid does not respond very well to cutting, so you need to trim the bush exclusively for sanitary purposes, removing damaged, frozen and duplicating branches. In addition, after flowering, to preserve the decorativeness of the bush, dried stalks are removed. If this is not done, next year the rhododendron will bloom not so abundantly - the formation of the fruits takes away a lot of additional forces from the plant that could be directed to laying flower buds. Anti-aging pruning is also used, which is needed when the plant loses its attractive appearance due to excessive growth and blooms noticeably worse. But gardeners do not recommend getting involved in forming a crown, because after such procedures, Hachmann’s Charmant dramatically slows down growth.
- Preparing for the winter. Despite the fact that Hachmann’s Charmant is considered a frost-resistant variety of rhododendron, before frost, in order to avoid frostbite, the bush needs to be abundantly watered and mulled with spruce branches. It is especially important to comply with these requirements in regions where the climate is characterized by the absence or small amount of snow, strong winds drying up the earth and frequent changes of severe frosts with unexpected thaws.
Video: winter rhododendron shelter
Since Hachmann’s Charmant is a hybrid, it can only be propagated in a vegetative way: plants grown from seeds do not preserve the hereditary traits of the parent form, and this applies both to external characteristics and agrotechnical characteristics - frost resistance and high immunity. The simplest and most convenient methods of reproduction of rhododendron are cuttings and cuttings.
Alternatively, you can try to use the division of the bush, especially if there is a need to move it to a new place.Finally, another way to get a rare Hachmann’s Charmant hybrid on your own site is to plant it on an existing rhododendron, less exotic, but quite frost-resistant and hardy. However, to carry out such a procedure, serious skills are needed, so it is best for beginners to focus on the cuttings.
Important! Cuttings for subsequent rooting need only be done in late spring or early summer, not later. The cut angle should be 45 degrees.
As planting material, annual shoots are used that begin to lignify, and the apical part of the stem is used, 70–100 mm long. The lower leaves should be carefully cut so that excess moisture does not evaporate through them during the rooting process, but the upper 2-3 leaves should be left. Before rooting, the cuttings must be soaked for 24 hours in a growth stimulator (Epina or Kornevin solution), but they should not be kept in water until roots appear, since such a root system still does not take root after planting.Planting cuttings should not be in open ground, but in separate containers. The soil is prepared in the same way as for an adult plant, but the percentage of sand and peat can be increased so that the substrate is lighter and loose. Install cut shoots into the ground at an angle of 30 degrees, being careful not to damage the kidney. To better root the cuttings, you need to create the effect of a greenhouse, for which the boxes are covered with a film or a glass cap.
If only a few shoots are planted, an improvised hotbed is easiest to make from an ordinary plastic bottle by cutting it across and after planting, covering the bottom half of the top bottle. This design is also convenient because it is very easy to ventilate and water it - just unscrew the lid for this. Rhododendrons need to be rooted in bright light (but not the burning sun, it is better to use artificial illumination) at a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° С.
If high humidity remains inside the greenhouse, the root system of the shoots is formed already 2-3 weeks after planting, but with respect to the Hachmann’s Charmant hybrid, this period may be somewhat delayed. According to statistics, out of 100 cuttings, about 85 take root, so plant propagation in this way is considered quite effective. After the cuttings begin to start young shoots, they should be carefully transplanted into larger containers and grow at a temperature of + 8 ... + 12 ° C, making sure that the soil remains moist. Such cuttings can be transplanted into the open ground no earlier than a year or two after the start of rooting.
The next way to propagate a decorative hybrid is layering. You need to start the procedure in the spring. First, the mother bush carefully inspect, picking up a healthy side branch. Then, with a sharp knife, pre-treated with a disinfectant, a longitudinal incision is made on it and a thin chip is inserted into it in order to prevent overgrowth of the “leaves”. Then they carefully loosen the earth around the bush, bend the shoot to it so that the cut is in the ground, pin it with a pin from above, slightly dig it in, and leave the top on the surface, lifting it vertically with a wooden support.
Then, throughout the growing season, the cuttings are abundantly moistened, and in the fall, when a new plant has its own root system, it is carefully cut off from the mother bush, dug out together with an earthen lump and transplanted to a new place. Alternatively, the transplant can be delayed until spring, this will save the seedling from freezing. This method of propagation of rhododendrons is simpler and more reliable than grafting., but allows you to get much less young plants, and therefore is not basic.Some gardeners recommend another way to grow several new hybrids from the same mother bush.
Did you know? A traditional dish of Korean cuisine that tourists are advised to try is hwajan, which literally translates as a “game of fritters”. This is a small pie of sticky rice dough with an unusual filling of rhododendron petals.
Since Hachmann’s Charmant has high growth strength and is well branched, such an alternative is well suited for him. At the beginning of the season, an adult plant is carefully spudded and watered abundantly, which stimulates the formation of abundant lateral shoots. After a year, each such shoot can be immediately planted without preliminary pinning, thus, in fact we are talking about a specific variety of plant propagation by dividing the bushwhen the mother plant itself remains in the same place, the division occurs due to the accelerated growth of basal processes.
Diseases and Pests
Like all varieties of rhododendrons bred in the Hackmann nursery, the Hachmann's Charmant hybrid has high immunity and good resistance to diseases and pests, therefore, problems in growing a bush arise only with gross violations of agricultural technology - stagnation of moisture in the soil, too bright sunlight, the presence of a high content lime in the ground, etc. But if such mistakes are made, there can be a lot of enemies at the site of the rhododendron. Their list includes insects, ticks, pathogenic fungi, microbes, and even viruses.
Did you know? Rhododendron is the official symbol of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (the flower is even depicted on the coat of arms of this state), as well as the Russian city of Vladivostok.
So, in a number of pests attacking the ornamental shrub, there are:
- spider mite;
- whiteflies (rhododendron and greenhouse);
- scale insects;
- acacia false shield;
- furrowed weevils;
- various bugs, including a rhododendron tick;
- snails, slugs, mollusks.
To prevent damage, the bush can be treated with Bordeaux mixture, colloidal sulfur or urea in the spring, and in case the problem becomes serious, use systemic insecticides (acaricides for tick control), for example: Calypso, Spark, Splender "," Actellik "," Fufanon "and others.
Among the most dangerous fungi and other infections for the Hachmann’s Charmant hybrid are the following:
- late blight;
- rot - gray, root, dry white, some types of mushrooms also cause rot of buds or young shoots, dying of shoots and other unpleasant symptoms;
- spotting - phylostictosis, septoria, anthracnose, pestalocytic;
- bloating (wax disease);
- bacterial cancer;
In the early stages of the lesion, as well as in the prevention of the development of fungal infections, biofungicides such as Fitosporin M, Trichodermin, etc. give a very high efficiency. More toxic, but still popular due to their high reliability, are systemic fungicidal pesticides, such as Skor, Khom, Topaz, Fundazol, etc.. Some of these drugs show good results for the treatment of bacterial infections of the ornamental shrub, but against viral diseases such as mosaics, these drugs, like any other, are powerless: if the bush is infected with a virus, it must be removed immediately, and it’s not just to dig out , but also take away as far as possible from the site or burn.
The Hachmann’s Charmant Hybrid is a true gem in the Hackmann Dynasty collection of evergreen rhododendrons. Large white-pink flowers with a bright burgundy fringing and an unusual red spot on the central petal, abundantly covering the bush from the end of May almost until mid-summer, give the plant a refined and even exotic appearance that is in no way inferior to noble roses. At the same time, the plant has high winter hardiness, excellent immunity and does not make high demands on agricultural technology, and therefore can grow without special difficulties even in those areas where daily and thorough care cannot be provided for garden crops.