Description, planting and care of Japanese quince
Japanese quince is a perennial shrub that grows in the wild in Japan, China and other Asian countries. Gardeners grow a plant for several reasons. Firstly, aromatic fruits with a pleasant taste have a rich composition of nutrients. Secondly, the bush has excellent decorative qualities, pleases with magnificent and beautiful flowering. That is why this species is popular in cooking, medicine, landscape design. On the intricacies of planting and caring for plants in open ground, as well as the reasons why the crop does not grow, read below.
Description of Japanese Quince
Japanese quince belongs to the genome Henomeles of the family Pink. The plant has distinctive features from other crops. A detailed description of the fruit shrub can be found below. Depending on the height, quince can have a tree-like or bush form: up to 3 m - a tree, up to 0.6 m - a bush. The culture has flexible spiny branches up to 2 cm long. Shoots are densely covered with emerald green elongated leaves. The bark of branches is dark brown with a touch of red. Flowers can be of different shades - orange, white or pink with a red tint.
Did you know? Until the beginning of the 20th century, the fruits of Japanese quince were considered inedible. The plant was cultivated for decorative purposes only.
Yellow-green fruits appear from the buds, the diameter of which is 3-5 cm. They have a dense skin and have a waxy coating on the surface. Half of the fruit is occupied by seeds. The pulp is also dense, tastes bittersweet. Bush quince is actively used to decorate a garden or summer cottage. Harvested in the fall - in late September or early October. Japanese quince normally tolerates a temperate (Moscow region, Leningrad region) and severe (Ural, Siberia) climate. The plant has good frost resistance - can withstand temperature drops to -30ºС.
Planting is the most important stage in growing Japanese quince. If everything is done correctly, henomeles will take root and provide a good harvest.
Location selection and lighting
Culture is not too picky. The only condition that must be adhered to is the illumination of the site. The place where you plan to plant the crop is of great importance. Quince loves light, direct sunlight positively affects the leaves and flowers of the plant, so quince can be planted in open areas, but at the same time, the site should be protected from strong through winds.
In the shade, culture is developing very poorly. Planting in shaded places will not lead to the death of the plant, however, it will affect the fruiting: it either completely stops, or becomes less lush and plentiful. Quince responds well to heat. Since the roots of the genomeles easily rot, you should choose a place with a deep occurrence of groundwater.
How to choose a seedling
No matter how many plants and whatever variety of Japanese quince you decide to plant, special attention should be paid to the choice of seedlings. One-year-old or two-year-olds are best suited. You can choose planting material with an open or closed root system. The first ones are better, since in this case one can carefully examine not only the ground part of the plant, but also the roots. At the base of each branch should be a minimum of 3-4 formed buds.
Important! Quinces need to be planted at a distance of at least 5 m from other crops. If planted closer, the roots of neighboring plants will prevent the genomeles from developing, taking nutrients from the soil.
The roots should be developed, without visible damage and dry parts. If the root on the cut is light, then it is healthy.Seedlings over 1 year old are most often sold in nurseries with a closed root system. Planting material in the container cannot be carefully inspected. But if the roots are in the earthen coma in which they grew up, the seedling has a great chance of taking root. Immediately before planting, such young plants need to be watered abundantly.
Genomeles can be planted both in spring and autumn. Spring planting is better, because in this case the seedling will have more time to take root and adapt in a new place. Autumn planting is possible, but it is likely that the plant will not take root properly before the onset of cold weather. If you plant quince in the southern regions, then planting in the fall is quite acceptable.
In spring, a plant is planted before the sap flow begins, until the seedling is at rest, and all the buds are completely awake. The weather should be warm, so the best time is April. If you plan to plant in the fall, the site must be prepared long before the planting process. In spring or summer, the place needs to be cleared of weeds, fertilizer for fertility and abundantly watered at the end of August. Now the site can be considered ready for planting crops.
The soil for planting Japanese quince should be light. It needs to have enough humus in it. Clay, loamy, sod-podzolic, sandy soil is suitable, but it is important that it be slightly acidic. Optimum Acidity - pH 6. Henomeles does not tolerate peat soil well. To plant quince in the spring, you need to take care of the site in the fall. The place should be freed from fallen leaves, weeds and plant roots, dig and fertilize. A positive effect can be achieved by fertilizing the soil with ferrous sulfate, colloidal sulfur, potassium sulfate, ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate.You need to feed the soil with horse peat, rotted conifer needles or leaf compost. After this, you need to water the site, and in winter lay it with a thick layer of snow. In the spring, after warming up the soil, it must either be dug up again or loosened. For autumn planting, the soil is prepared in the spring. The site should, again, be cleaned of weeds, dig, add the same fertilizer and water well. All these manipulations are allowed to be done at the end of August, but taking into account what you will plant at the end of September. The landing mechanism is the same regardless of the timing.
Important! Vinegar must not be used as soil fertilizer. It adversely affects the microflora of the soil, without leaving useful substances in it.
Follow the step by step instructions:
- Dig a hole. Its depth should be 40–50 cm, and its diameter should be 70–90 cm. The roots of the culture do not develop in depth, but in breadth. The diameter of the roots is several times the diameter of the crown.
- At the bottom of the pit, pour the prepared soil mixture of sand, leaf soil and peat compost, taken in a ratio of 1: 2: 2. Complete the composition with mineral fertilizers: add potassium nitrate (30 g) and superphosphate (200 g).
- Set the seedling in the center and cover it with earth dug from the pit. It is not necessary to deepen the root neck too much - it should be at the level of the soil.
- Tamp the soil a little and form a near-stem circle.
- Abundantly water the planted plant.
- Sprinkle with mulch. Sawdust is suitable for these purposes.
- Above the kidney by 1.5 cm, cut the shoots of the plant 1/3 of their length. This is necessary for better rooting of the culture.
Japanese quince care
In order for the culture to please with luxurious flowering and abundant harvest, it is necessary to properly care for it. It is not difficult to do this, because the plant is undemanding. The care includes standard measures: watering, top dressing, pruning, cultivating, mulching and preparing for winter.
Fertilizer and fertilizer
Genomeles should be fed three times a year: during the growing season, after flowering, and after harvesting. During the growing season, fertilizers containing nitrogen must be applied. The best options for such top dressing are urea and ammonium nitrate.. When the shoots begin to grow, 40–50 g of fertilizers are sprinkled on the near-stem circle of the plant, and when the branches grow, 80–120 g of funds are added. After flowering and harvesting, shrubs should be watered with potash or phosphorus liquid fertilizers. 200-300 g of the drug is diluted in a bucket of water and this composition is applied under each plant.
If we are talking about potash fertilizers, then they are suitable:
- potassium nitrate;
Effective phosphate top dressing are superphosphate, double superphosphate, SuperFos.
Japanese quince does not need frequent watering, however, regularity is important. If summer is moderately rainy, moisten the soil under the plant once a month. For each bush you need to pour 3-4 buckets of water. If the drought is long, the frequency of watering is increased to 1 time in 2-3 weeks. In the middle of summer, just before the start of the growing season, it is imperative to water the crop so that more fruits are formed. Toward the end of August, it is necessary to moisten the soil so that the quince grows juicy, not dry, in bulk.
Mandatory care is to trim the bush. Quince needs both sanitary and formative. Such procedures are carried out only in the spring, because if you do this in the fall, the plant is vulnerable and may die due to the cold. If you practice autumn pruning, leave the shoots 15-30 cm long. Such a short bush in winter will be covered with snow, so it will not suffer and will bloom in spring.During sanitary pruning, remove old, dry and damaged branches.. It is held every year. In order not to harm the bush, use exclusively sharp tools. Formative pruning is necessary if Japanese quinces are grown to create a beautiful site design. It begins to be carried out when the plant reaches the age of 4-5 years.
It is impossible to prevent thickening of the crown, since the plant spends a lot of strength on it, but does not add beauty and fruit. During the formation of the bush, you need to remove the extra branches so that they do not interfere with the lighting of the whole culture. It is necessary to leave 2-3 young offspring. Shoots growing horizontally at an altitude of 20–40 cm from the soil are the most valuable. Creeping branches and those that grow vertically must be removed.
The root system of Japanese quince is developed. The main root is located at a depth of about 5 m. Due to its ability to independently extract water from the soil, the plant normally develops even during periods of drought. The fibrous roots do not go deep into the ground.That is why during cultivation it is necessary to be very careful, not diving more than 8-10 cm. Digging the soil under the plant is necessary 2-3 days after watering, that is, at least 1 time per month is necessary. If weeds appear in the near-stem circle, they must be eliminated.
Mulch slows the germination of weeds and keeps the soil under the henomeles quite moist. A layer of a thickness of 3-5 cm is poured around the shrub. It is recommended to use wood sawdust, peat, crushed bark or pine nutshell. It should be mulched in late spring - the soil is still moist after winter, but it has already warmed up. In the fall, mulch covers the earth when a period of steady low temperatures has come. The diameter of the mulched circle should correspond to the diameter of the crown of the plant or exceed it by 15–20 cm.
Did you know? Japanese quince is the record holder for the content of vitamin C. There are more ascorbic acids in fruits than in citrus fruits.
Features of care during and after flowering
Fine flowering is one of the reasons why genomeles is grown. Bright red or orange flowers are fascinating, pleasing to the eye and give the garden a stunning look. There are no special difficulties in caring for a plant during its flowering period and after it.You can increase the frequency of watering up to 2 times per month. If the summer is dry, it is necessary to spray the foliage of the plants, but liquid must not be allowed to enter the flowers.So that fruiting after flowering is more plentiful, liquid fertilizers should be applied in the summer. You can feed with mullein in liquid form (3 l of 10% mixture for each bush) or with ammonium nitrate solution (20 g per plant). During and after flowering, pests can attack the crop - a spider mite or scab. For preventive purposes, you need to treat the bushes with special preparations. Karbofos, Aktara, and Aktellik do an excellent job of this task. Other manipulations do not need to be done.
Frost resistance and wintering
As noted earlier, Japanese quince is a frost-resistant plant. Lowering the temperature to -30 ° C he is not afraid. But you need to cover the culture for the winter in any case, in order to avoid freezing. As a shelter using spruce branches. The branches of the bushes grafted on the stem are tilted to the ground and covered with a dense fabric. It is important that the material allows the plant to breathe.
In winter, the cloth is sprinkled with snow, which prevents quince from freezing. Such manipulations need to be done in areas with a temperate climate, for example, in the suburbs. In areas with more severe climatic conditions, wintering should be given more attention. The shoots of the plant need to be wrapped in burlap and not too tightly wrapped with wire. In this case, the bush will normally tolerate the cold.
Video: quince japanese
Why quince does not grow
If you planted a quince, but it did not grow, it means that during the planting you made mistakes:
- dug a hole too deep;
- too deeply buried the root neck of the seedling;
- prepared the wrong soil mixture;
- did not shorten the shoots after landing.
In this case, it is worth transplanting the plant, following all the rules.
- The bush may also not grow and not bloom due to poor maintenance:
- the plant lacks light;
- the soil is alkalized;
- nitrogen fertilizers are not applied;
- creeping shoots are not removed;
- during the formation of the bush, valuable shoots were cut off;
- did not take care of the winter, and the branches froze.
Growing Japanese quince has its own nuances. If the plant is properly planted and properly looked after, it will grow quickly and bear fruit well. Attentive gardeners are provided with an excellent harvest.